イトウ バンリ   ITO Banri
  伊藤 萬里
   所属   青山学院大学  経済学部 経済学科
   職種   教授
言語種別 英語
発行・発表の年月 2007
形態種別 学術雑誌
査読 査読有り
標題 Who Develops Innovations in Medicine for The Poor? Trends in Patent Applications Related to Medicines for HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria, and Neglected Diseases
執筆形態 共同
掲載誌名 The Developing Economies
掲載区分国外
巻・号・頁 pp.141-171
著者・共著者 Banri Ito and Tatsufumi Yamagata
概要 This paper analyzes patent data of medicines and vaccines for diseases spreading in low-income countries. The data were retrieved from a database of the Japan Patent Office. Who invents medicines for the poor of the world? This is the main question that the paper addresses. Results indicate that not only public institutions but also private firms have played an important role in developing innovations for fighting both global diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, and so-called neglected diseases including malaria, which seem to spread almost exclusively in low-income countries. Moreover, the basic mechanism of innovation is similar between the development of medicines for HIV/AIDS and those for neglected diseases. Finally, among firms, infectious disease fighting innovations are quite diverse. R&D stock and economies of scope are used to explain frequent patent applications by a high-performing pharmaceutical firm.